Source: Washington Post
Source: Washington Post
Source: Washington Post
Adolphe Nshimirimana—the right arm of the Burundian president, Pierre
Nkurunziza, and Chief of Homeland Security—was killed today
in the capital city of Bujumbura by a rocket attack against his car.
Here are the Top 10 strangest buildings in Poland, according to Culture.pl:
1. Jesus in Swiebodzin
2. The Observation Tower in Gorzów Wielkopolski
3. Headquarters of National Polish Television in Warsaw
4. Petrol station in Rytro
5. Crooked Little House in Sopot
6. Polish Pyramids
7. Skull Chapel in Czermna
8. Upside Down House in Szymbark
9. House in Zeleznikowa near Nowy Sacz
10. Theatre In The Closet in Torun
From National Review’s The Corner:
In a meeting with their top leadership where their leadership
admitted that they sometimes get fully intact fetuses shipped to their
laboratory from the abortion clinics they work with, and that could be
prima facie evidence of born alive infants. And so that’s why they’re
trying to suppress that videotape and they’re very scared of it.
by Anna Van Lenten
Via The Daily Caller
An integral part of UNH’s mission is to continue to build an inclusive learning community, and the first step toward our goal is an awareness of any bias in our daily language. As we begin to understand bias, we explore the truths of hierarchy and oppression. When we free ourselves of bias, we are thus affirming identities that differ from our own. When we do not affirm another person’s identity, we are characterizing an individual as “less than” or “other”. This makes them invisible, and for some, it feels like a form of violence.
This guide is meant to invite inclusive excellence in our campus community. Each step of inclusion moves us closer to a full democracy. The text was prepared for faculty, staff and students of the UNH community to encourage the full range of contributions that we offer as individuals and members of various groups. The guide presents practical revisions in our common usage that can make a difference and break barriers relating to diversity.
Diversity is a civic value at UNH. We are committed to supporting and sustaining an educational community that is inclusive, diverse and equitable. The values of diversity, inclusion and equity are inextricably linked to our mission of teaching and research excellence, and we embrace these values as being critical to development, learning and success. The Faculty Senate’s Statement on Diversity emphasizes, “We expect nothing less than an accessible, multicultural community in which civility and respect are fostered, and discrimination and harassment are not tolerated.”
Starting a Conversation about Word Choice
The following bias-free language guide is meant to serve as a starting point about terms related to age, race, class, ethnicity, nationality, gender, ability, sexual orientation and more. It is not meant to represent absolute requirements of language use but, rather, offer a way to encourage us to think critically and reflectively about the terms and phrases that many people use regularly in conversation and writing.
Our hope is to encourage thoughtful expression in terms that are sensitive to the diverse identities and experiences in our community. Language is an incredibly complex phenomenon that often reflects and affects our identities. There is wide diversity among us in usage and understanding of language based on our age, place of origin, culture and class, among other identities. This guide is not a means to censor but rather to create dialogues of inclusion where all of us feel comfortable and welcomed.
We invite your feedback, including suggestions, edits and additions. Thanks for reading and thanks for careful consideration when you speak.
Identities Matter and Words Matter
Identities are personal. It is important to realize that each person will define their own identity. Identity terms are meant for individuals to use to identify themselves and not for us to identify them. You will find various definitions depending on culture, places of origin, generation, etc.
When appropriate, ask how a person wishes to be identified, and please remember that identity terms are meant for individuals to use to identify themselves and not for us to identify them. Use inclusive language to emphasize or focus the reader’s attention on similarities, equality and respect. Conversely, avoid using language that detracts from the sense of value of the whole person and avoid terms that exclude, marginalize, diminish or lower the status of any individual or group (e.g., “us and them” constructions). If you don’t know what to say, just ask the individual how they prefer to be identified.
In addition, avoid stereotypes and words that are derived from negative assumptions e.g., using the expression “going Dutch” for “splitting the bill”.
Diversity: Individual differences (e.g., personality, learning styles, and life experiences) and group/social differences (e.g., race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, country of origin, physical or cognitive abilities, as well as cultural, political, religious, or other affiliations) that can be engaged in the service of learning.
Inclusion: The active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversity—in people, in the curriculum, in the co-curriculum and in communities (intellectual, social, cultural, geographical). This engagement with diversity has the potential to increase one’s awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within systems and institutions.
Equity: Creating opportunities for equal access and success for historically underrepresented populations such as racial and ethnic minority and low-income students, in three main areas:
• Representational equity, the proportional participation at all levels of an institution;
• Resource equity, the distribution of educational resources in order to close equity gaps; and
• Equity-mindedness, the demonstration of an awareness of and willingness to address equity issues among institutional leaders and staff
|AGE, CLASS, SIZE|
Glossary of Language
Preferred: people of advanced age, old people*
Problematic/Outdated: older people, elders, seniors, senior citizen
*Old people has been reclaimed by some older activists who believe the standard wording of old people lacks the stigma of the term “advanced age”. Old people also halts the euphemizing of age. Euphemizing automatically positions age as a negative.
Preferred: person living at or below the poverty line, people experiencing poverty
Problematic/Outdated: poor person, poverty-stricken person
Just as it is not always necessary to convey the color of a person’s hair, for example, do not mention that a person has a disability unless it is relevant to the communication.
Avoid using language that casts disabilities as negative. For example, steer away from using phrases such as; suffers from, afflicted with or victim of, as such expressions cast disabilities as negative attributes. By the same token, avoid using the terms; handicapped, challenged and crippled. Nick Holtzhum, former UNH student said, “Being disabled just gives you different means to do the same things that others do.”
Glossary of Language
Focus: It’s important to remember that we come from diverse backgrounds and experiences that foster our full identities. We are not just what appears on the surface to be our singular or perceived dominant identity.
|RACE, ETHNICITY, CULTURE AND IMMIGRANT STATUS|
Glossary of Language
Preferred: Black or African American
Problematic: negro, negroid, colored person, dark
Preferred: U.S. citizen or Resident of the U.S.
Note: North Americans often use “American” which usually, depending on the context, fails to recognize South America
Preferred: North American or South American
Problematic: American: assumes the U.S. is the only country inside these two continents.
Preferred: People of Color
Problematic: Colored, Non-White
Note: In the U.S. context, “People of Color” usually refers to Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, Latino/a, Hispanic, African American and biracial/multiracial people and should not be used synonymously with “Black” or “African American.”
Preferred: Western Asian, Northern African people
Note: The people of these regions of the world identify according to their genealogical, linguistic, or cultural backgrounds. When applicable, tribal affiliations and intra-tribal relationships play an important role in their identity.
Preferred: White people, European-American individuals
Problematic: Caucasian people
Preferred: international people
Preferred: Undocumented* immigrant or worker; person seeking asylum, refugee
Problematic: illegal alien
*Although preferable to illegal (when we call a person illegal, we imply that they are an object), this term lacks recognition of the person’s humanity first.
Preferred: bi-racial people, multi-racial individuals when it is relevant to state this in a communication
Problematic: mixed race people, mulatto
Preferred: Asian people, Asian American individuals
Note: Certain food may be labeled Oriental, and carpets may be “Oriental”, but not people’s identities. The suffix “American” signifies that the person was born in or spent formative years in North America.
Preferred: Latino people or Latino/a people,
Problematic: Spanish People (only appropriate for people from Spain; and, therefore, imprecise when referring to people from Latin, Central or South America)
Preferred: Native Americans or indigenous people or First Nation people (Often referring to native Canadians)
Problematic: Indians (when referring to indigenous American people unless the person indicates that they preferred to be identified as Indian)
|SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY|
Preferred: Gay, Lesbian, Same Gender Loving (SGL)
“Homosexual” is an outdated clinical term considered derogatory and offensive by many gay and lesbian people. Gay and/or lesbian accurately describe those who are attracted to people of the same sex or gender. Same Gender Loving is sometimes used among African American sexual minority individuals.
Preferred: Sexual Minorities, Queer, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ)
Problematic: People of an alternative “lifestyle” (when referring to sexuality)
“Lifestyle” is an inaccurate term used by anti-gay extremists to denigrate lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender lives. As there is not one straight lifestyle, there is not one lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender lifestyle. Queer, historically a derogatory term, has been reclaimed by many sexual minorities and their allies. Queer is often used as an umbrella term to describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, pansexual, transgender, and questioning (of sexuality and/or gender identity).
Preferred: People with intersex characteristics, individuals with ambiguous sexual organs
Intersex can be used when describing a person whose biological sex is ambiguous. There are many genetic, hormonal or anatomical variations that make a person’s sexual organs ambiguous (e.g., Klinefelter Syndrome). Parents and medical professionals usually assign intersex infants a sex and perform surgical procedures to conform the infant’s body to the chosen assignment.
Note: the intersex community speaks out against non-consensual, premature and unsound practices. The term intersex is not interchangeable with or a synonym for transgender.
Preferred: Sexual Reassignment Surgery (SRS), Gender Reaffirming Surgery, Gender Confirming Surgery
Problematic/Outdated: Sex Change
Refers to surgical alteration, and is only one small part of transition (see transition directly above on intersex characteristics). Not all transgender people choose to, or can afford to have Sexual Reassignment Surgery. Journalists and researchers should avoid overemphasizing the role of SRS in the transition process.
Glossary of Terms
The fear, hatred and/or dislike of people who are or are perceived to be bisexual.
Note: This includes prejudice, discrimination, harassment and acts of violence. It can often manifest as discrediting or doubting the existence of bisexuality.
A range of different identities wherein a person is comfortable identifying with the sex or gender they were assigned at birth.
A pervasive and institutionalized system that places transgender people in the “other” category and treats their needs and identities as less important than those of cisgender people.
Note: This includes the lack of gender-neutral restrooms, locker rooms, and residences.
Coming out (of the closet)
The process of being open about one’s own sexual orientation and/or gender identity. This may include telling friends, family, loved ones, co-workers, acquaintances, etc.
Note: This may be a difficult process; a person should not be forced to come out to anyone for any reason. Each individual should be respected to choose who they come out to and when. Acceptance and support help people at this time.
The presumption that heterosexuality is universal and/or superior to other sexual orientations
Example of perpetuation of hetero-normativity – seeing a ring on a woman’s finger and saying “congratulations, what’s his name?”
This illustrates the assumption that the woman is heterosexual or that she is in a relationship with a person of male gender.
Note: Even though it may seem this way in some relationships where one person is more masculine and/or feminine than the other, the idea of someone being “the man” and the other being “the woman” is a reflection of a hetero-normative society.
Prejudice, bias, or discriminations based on the presumption that heterosexuality is universal and/or superior to other sexual orientations.
The fear, hatred and/or dislike of people who are attracted – or are perceived to be attracted to a person of the same sex or gender.
Note: Homophobia may result in acts of prejudice, discrimination, harassment and violence. It is possible for someone who is attracted to people of the same gender to be homophobic. This is called “internalized homophobia”, which means having negative feelings toward oneself because we live in a homophobic society – or something like that.
To Be Out
To be open about your sexual orientation and/or your gender identity
Note: A person may be out only in a particular area of their life, for example, they may only be out to friends, but not to family or vice versa. It can never be assumed that someone is out to everyone.
To reveal an individual’s sexual orientation and/or gender identity, “to out someone”, is a violation of an individual’s right to self-identify and may result in life-threatening consequences. Each person chooses when and with whom they want to share their identity.
A person’s innate, enduring physical, emotional and/or spiritual attraction toward others
Note: This attraction is typically, but not always, specific to a particular gender (or to multiple genders). For example, some people are attracted only to men or women; other people are attracted to both men and women, and some others’ attractions transcend gender (e.g., they are attracted to specific traits or characteristics, regardless of their gender).
Sexual behavior is an action that a person chooses, but that action does not necessarily define a person’s orientation as gay, straight, bisexual, pansexual or asexual.
The fear, hatred, and/or dislike of people who are/or are perceived to be outside of the socially constructed systems of sex and/or gender.
Note: Transphobia may result in acts of prejudice, discrimination, harassment and violence.
|WOMEN AND GENDER|
First, it is essential to discuss the concept of gender. Gender is a socially constructed system to classify traits, appearance and/or other things as masculine, male, feminine, and/or female. It is important to note that although masculinity is typically ascribed to biological males, and femininity is typically ascribed to biological females, those connections are socially constructed and, therefore, are not always accurate.
Problematic/Outdated: Girls (when referring to adult women)
Preferred: doctor, nurse, lawyer, professor, secretary
Specify gender only if relevant and/or necessary for discussion.
Avoid gender stereotyping: the secretary . . . she, the professor/supervisor . . . he
Preferred: Thanks to the administrative assistants for their work on the project
Problematic: Thank the girls in the office for typing the reports
Preferred: Children who are gender non-conforming, Children who are gender variant
Problematic/Outdated: Girlie or Tomboy
Preferred: Transgender Individual
Problematic/Outdated: Biological /Genetic/Natal/ “normal” gender
Preferred: Assigned Sex
Problematic/Outdated: Biological/Genetic/Natal/ “normal” sex
Preferred: Affirmed gender, Affirmed girl, Affirmed boy
Problematic/Outdated: “Real” Gender, “Real” Girl, “Real” Boy
The way an individual expresses their gender through their clothing, attitude, hairstyle, etc.
Note: Many times homophobic attacks are actually attacks on an individual’s perceived gender expression and not necessarily their sexual orientation since it is not something you can actually see about a person.
One’s innate inner feeling of being a man, woman, both or neither.
Note: Gender identity may or may not be associated with one’s physical body.
|GUIDE PUBLICATION INFO|
Find a lot more well-designed infographics about Iran and the Straits of Hormuz at Visual.ly